python requests模块

一、安装

使用pip进行安装

pip install requests

二、使用

2.1 使用requests.get访问普通页面,即不需要参数可访问的页面,如:百度、google等展示页面。

>>> import requests
>>> response=requests.get("https://www.baidu.com")
>>> print(type(response))
<class 'requests.models.Response'>
>>> print(response.status_code)
200
>>> print(type(response.text))
<class 'str'>
>>> response.encoding='utf-8'
>>> print(response.cookies)
<RequestsCookieJar[<Cookie BDORZ=27315 for .baidu.com/>]>
>>> print(response.content)
b'<!DOCTYPE html>\r\n<!--STATUS OK--><html> <head><meta http-equiv=content-type content=text/html;charset=utf-8><meta http-equiv=X-UA-Compatible content=IE=Edge><meta content=always name=referrer><link rel=stylesheet type=text/css href=https://ss1.bdstatic.com/5eN1bjq8AAUYm2zgoY3K/r/www/cache/bdorz/baidu.min.css><title>\xe7\x99\xbe\xe5\xba\xa6\xe4\xb8\x80\xe4\xb8\x8b\xef\xbc\x8c\xe4\xbd\xa0\xe5\xb0\xb1\xe7\x9f\xa5\xe9\x81\x93</title></head> <body link=#0000cc> <div id=wrapper> <div id=head> <div class=head_wrapper> <div class=s_form> <div class=s_form_wrapper> <div id=lg> <img hidefocus=true src=//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png width=270 height=129> </div> <form id=form name=f action=//www.baidu.com/s class=fm> <input type=hidden name=bdorz_come value=1> <input type=hidden name=ie value=utf-8> <input type=hidden name=f value=8> <input type=hidden name=rsv_bp value=1> <input type=hidden name=rsv_idx value=1> <input type=hidden name=tn value=baidu><span class="bg s_ipt_wr"><input id=kw name=wd class=s_ipt value maxlength=255 autocomplete=off autofocus=autofocus></span><span class="bg s_btn_wr"><input type=submit id=su value=\xe7\x99\xbe\xe5\xba\xa6\xe4\xb8\x80\xe4\xb8\x8b class="bg s_btn" autofocus></span> </form> </div> </div> <div id=u1> <a href=http://news.baidu.com name=tj_trnews class=mnav>\xe6\x96\xb0\xe9\x97\xbb</a> <a href=https://www.hao123.com name=tj_trhao123 class=mnav>hao123</a> <a href=http://map.baidu.com name=tj_trmap class=mnav>\xe5\x9c\xb0\xe5\x9b\xbe</a> <a href=http://v.baidu.com name=tj_trvideo class=mnav>\xe8\xa7\x86\xe9\xa2\x91</a> <a href=http://tieba.baidu.com name=tj_trtieba class=mnav>\xe8\xb4\xb4\xe5\x90\xa7</a> <noscript> <a href=http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&amp;tpl=mn&amp;u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2f%3fbdorz_come%3d1 name=tj_login class=lb>\xe7\x99\xbb\xe5\xbd\x95</a> </noscript> <script>document.write(\'<a href="http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&tpl=mn&u=\'+ encodeURIComponent(window.location.href+ (window.location.search === "" ? "?" : "&")+ "bdorz_come=1")+ \'" name="tj_login" class="lb">\xe7\x99\xbb\xe5\xbd\x95</a>\');\r\n                </script> <a href=//www.baidu.com/more/ name=tj_briicon class=bri style="display: block;">\xe6\x9b\xb4\xe5\xa4\x9a\xe4\xba\xa7\xe5\x93\x81</a> </div> </div> </div> <div id=ftCon> <div id=ftConw> <p id=lh> <a href=http://home.baidu.com>\xe5\x85\xb3\xe4\xba\x8e\xe7\x99\xbe\xe5\xba\xa6</a> <a href=http://ir.baidu.com>About Baidu</a> </p> <p id=cp>&copy;2017&nbsp;Baidu&nbsp;<a href=http://www.baidu.com/duty/>\xe4\xbd\xbf\xe7\x94\xa8\xe7\x99\xbe\xe5\xba\xa6\xe5\x89\x8d\xe5\xbf\x85\xe8\xaf\xbb</a>&nbsp; <a href=http://jianyi.baidu.com/ class=cp-feedback>\xe6\x84\x8f\xe8\xa7\x81\xe5\x8f\x8d\xe9\xa6\x88</a>&nbsp;\xe4\xba\xacICP\xe8\xaf\x81030173\xe5\x8f\xb7&nbsp; <img src=//www.baidu.com/img/gs.gif> </p> </div> </div> </div> </body> </html>\r\n'
>>> print(response.content.decode("utf-8"))
<!DOCTYPE html>
<!--STATUS OK--><html> <head><meta http-equiv=content-type content=text/html;charset=utf-8><meta http-equiv=X-UA-Compatible content=IE=Edge><meta content=always name=referrer><link rel=stylesheet type=text/css href=https://ss1.bdstatic.com/5eN1bjq8AAUYm2zgoY3K/r/www/cache/bdorz/baidu.min.css><title>百度一下,你就知道</title></head> <body link=#0000cc> <div id=wrapper> <div id=head> <div class=head_wrapper> <div class=s_form> <div class=s_form_wrapper> <div id=lg> <img hidefocus=true src=//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png width=270 height=129> </div> <form id=form name=f action=//www.baidu.com/s class=fm> <input type=hidden name=bdorz_come value=1> <input type=hidden name=ie value=utf-8> <input type=hidden name=f value=8> <input type=hidden name=rsv_bp value=1> <input type=hidden name=rsv_idx value=1> <input type=hidden name=tn value=baidu><span class="bg s_ipt_wr"><input id=kw name=wd class=s_ipt value maxlength=255 autocomplete=off autofocus=autofocus></span><span class="bg s_btn_wr"><input type=submit id=su value=百度一下 class="bg s_btn" autofocus></span> </form> </div> </div> <div id=u1> <a href=http://news.baidu.com name=tj_trnews class=mnav>新闻</a> <a href=https://www.hao123.com name=tj_trhao123 class=mnav>hao123</a> <a href=http://map.baidu.com name=tj_trmap class=mnav>地图</a> <a href=http://v.baidu.com name=tj_trvideo class=mnav>视频</a> <a href=http://tieba.baidu.com name=tj_trtieba class=mnav>贴吧</a> <noscript> <a href=http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&amp;tpl=mn&amp;u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2f%3fbdorz_come%3d1 name=tj_login class=lb>登录</a> </noscript> <script>document.write('<a href="http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&tpl=mn&u='+ encodeURIComponent(window.location.href+ (window.location.search === "" ? "?" : "&")+ "bdorz_come=1")+ '" name="tj_login" class="lb">登录</a>');
                </script> <a href=//www.baidu.com/more/ name=tj_briicon class=bri style="display: block;">更多产品</a> </div> </div> </div> <div id=ftCon> <div id=ftConw> <p id=lh> <a href=http://home.baidu.com>关于百度</a> <a href=http://ir.baidu.com>About Baidu</a> </p> <p id=cp>&copy;2017&nbsp;Baidu&nbsp;<a href=http://www.baidu.com/duty/>使用百度前必读</a>&nbsp; <a href=http://jianyi.baidu.com/ class=cp-feedback>意见反馈</a>&nbsp;京ICP证030173号&nbsp; <img src=//www.baidu.com/img/gs.gif> </p> </div> </div> </div> </body> </html>

备注:response.text返回的是Unicode格式,通常需要转换为utf-8格式,否则就是乱码。response.content是二进制模式,可以下载视频之类的,如果想看的话需要decode成utf-8格式。不管是通过response.content.decode(“utf-8)的方式还是通过response.encoding=”utf-8″的方式都可以避免乱码的问题发生。


2.2 使用requests.get访问认证页面,需要access_token或其它授权方式进行访问,如API接口等。


 T_url="/users"      # API接口
 data={"full_list":"true"}       #API接口参数,此参数为获取所有用户列表
 headers={'Authorization':'Bearer '+ self.TeamViewer_Access_Token}       # 设置headers信息 提供认证支持
 F_url=self.url+self.Api_version+T_url       # 拼接最终URL https://webapi.teamviewer.com/api/v1/users
 user_list=eval(requests.get(url=F_url,params=data,headers=headers).text.replace('false','False').replace('true','True'))['users']    #使用requests.get获取用户列表 https://webapi.teamviewer.com/api/v1/users?full_list=true 并使用replace将字符串中的false及true首字母大写 并通过 eval转为字典
点赞